Raqqada, Kairouan, Tunisia
Museum of Islamic Art
Hegira 4th century / AD 10th century
Black leather with a grainy surface.
Length 17.6 cm, width 11.5 cm, thickness 0.5 cm
Back board. Italian format. In the centre of the panel is a magnificent nine-lobed fleuron, enclosed within three rings. From these rings emerge two symmetrical spear motifs set along the longitudinal axis and four furled, tri-lobed leaves pointing towards each corner. There is a simple border of lines, each 4 mm wide. This type of floral design is found on many funerary stones in Kairouan from the AH mid-4th / AD 10th century to the middle of the 5th / 11th century and probably gives us a first clue to the date of the binding. The stylised, multi-lobed vine-leaf motif, furled or spread, is one of the most typical elements of the decorative repertoire of mediaeval Kairouan, which confirms that the panel belongs to the Kairouan School of bookbinding. Moreover, during the 4th and 5th centuries (10th and 11th) Ifriqiya was a great centre of book production, exporting to Egypt, Syria and Spain. The leather is most probably goatskin and the relief is obtained by applying thin wire under the leather at the places where the ornamentation is drawn. The whole panel is then placed on a piece of wood covered in copper. This technique may well have been inherited from Copts living in the Muslim world.View Short Description
Other identical bindings have been found still glued to the volumes of the Qur'ans to which they belonged. Palaeographic study of their writing dates them very accurately to the 4th / 10th century.
After the abolition of the habus foundation in Tunisia, this binding was obtained by the Museum of the Great Mosque of Kairouan in 1963. It has been displayed in the Museum of Islamic Art at Raqqada since 1986.
This binding was certainly produced at Kairouan which was an important centre for book production at that time.
30 ans au service du patrimoine (exhibition catalogue), 1986, p.224.
De Carthage a Kairouan (exhibition catalogue), 1982, p.239, cat. no. 324.
Marcais, G. and Poinssot, L., Objets Kairouanais, I, Tunis-Paris, 1948, p.233, plate 26.
Tunez, Tierra de Culturas (exhibition catalogue), Valencia, 2004, p.227.
Ifriqiya: Thirteen Centuries of Art and Architecture in Tunisia, pp.159–62, 182–3.
Mourad Rammah "Binding" in Discover Islamic Art , Museum With No Frontiers, 2019. http://www.museumwnf.org/thematicgallery/thg_galleries/database_item.php?itemId=objects;ISL;tn;Mus01;7;en&id=leatherwork
Prepared by: Mourad RammahMourad Rammah
Né en 1953 à Kairouan, docteur en archéologie islamique, Mourad Rammah est le conservateur de la médina de Kairouan. Lauréat du prix Agha Khan d'architecture, il publie divers articles sur l'histoire de l'archéologie médiévale islamique en Tunisie et participe à différentes expositions sur l'architecture islamique. De 1982 à 1994, il est en charge du département de muséographie du Centre des arts et des civilisations islamiques. Mourad Rammah est également directeur du Centre des manuscrits de Kairouan.
Copyedited by: Margot Cortez
Translation by: David Ash
Translation copyedited by: Mandi Gomez
MWNF Working Number: TN 11