Name of Object:

One of a pair of earrings

Location:

Damascus, Syria

Holding Museum:

National Museum of Damascus

Date:

Around hegira 5th–6th / AD 11th–12th century

Type of object:

Jewellery

Museum Inventory Number:

ع 5880

Material(s) / Technique(s):

Woven gold.

Dimensions:

Height 5 cm, width (of disk) 2 cm

Period / Dynasty:

Fatimid

Description:

Gold manufacturing has been known in Syria from at least 2000 BC. Gold artefacts, moulds, and various goldsmiths' tools have been found in numerous Syrian archaeological sites, including those at Ugarit, Mushrifa, and Ebla. During the Classical period, gold jewellery was widely produced in Syria, particularly in Hawran, Palmyra (Tadmur) and Homs.
The development of gold manufacturing in Syria continued during the Islamic period, as exemplified by surviving examples such as this single earring, made from woven gold in the form of a circular disk with radiating edges lined by a string of pearls. In the centre of the disc is a triangular formation of two red rubies and a green emerald. A circular ruby instead of a pearl indicates the top side of the disc, out of which protrudes a link to another triangular set of three precious stones mirroring the ones on the filigree disk, a green emerald and two red rubies set within gold mounts. Above them, located near the ear wire, is a final decorative feature of a little pierced golden sphere also containing a precious stone; an emerald.

View Short Description

How date and origin were established:

The production of highly refined gold jewellery flourished in Egypt and Syria during the Fatimid period (358–567 / AD 969–1171). The techniques employed included filigree and a method using granules of gold; twisted rope-like gold, and occasionally inlay work with gems were also employed. Products include bracelets, armlets, earrings, pendants, rings, belts, brooches, and hair ornaments.

How Object was obtained:

Purchased in 1949.

How provenance was established:

During the Fatimid period, the gold-production centres of Syria and Egypt flourished, particularly those in Aleppo and Cairo. Although this item was obtained by the Museum from Raqqa, it is not possible to determine the provenance of this object definitively.

Selected bibliography:

Abu al-Faraj al-Ush, M., A Concise Guide to the National Museum of Damascus, Damascus, 1969, p.196.
Atil, E. et al, Islamic Metalwork in the Freer Gallery of Art, Washington DC, 1985.
Seipel, W., Schätze der Kalifen: Islamische Kunst zur Fatimidenzeit, Wien, 1998, pp.119–20; fig. 77.

Citation of this web page:

Mona al-Moadin "One of a pair of earrings" in Discover Islamic Art , Museum With No Frontiers, 2017. http://www.museumwnf.org/thematicgallery/thg_galleries/database_item.php?itemId=objects;ISL;sy;Mus01;16;en&id=jewellery

Prepared by: Mona Al-Moadin
Translation by: Hilary Kalmbach (from the Arabic)
Translation copyedited by: Mandi Gomez

MWNF Working Number: SY 22