Erimtan Archaeology and Arts Museum
AD First or second century
Glass; Free blown
Height: 11.2cm; Diameter rim: 15cm
The Modiolus cup is a large glass cup, which was used for measuring and/or drinking liquids and/or pouring libations. This one is made of pale blue-green translucent glass by applying the free-blowing technique. It has a conical body, its rim is folded out and its base is supported by a thickly made foot. Below the flaring rim is decorated with a fairly even wheel art line. The later-applied handle has a subtle flagged decoration limited to the top part. It is in an intact situation, but some soil-encrusted weathering, blowing striations, partly flaked off dulling and a jagged pontil scar are also seen on the surface.
After the free-blowing technique has been found, possibly around in the first quarter of the 1st century BC, the mould-blowing technique has developed and the desired glass forms and patterns were obtained by blowing into glass, terracotta, stone, metal or wood moulds. The melt at the end of the blowing rod is inflated in two or more pieces of the container until it covers the mould.
The use of angular and patterned moulds has usually made it unnecessary to apply additional ornaments. With this technique, mass production of glasses with the same form, measurement, and decoration can be produced by using a single mould. In the form of quadrangular shaped moulds, the glass workshop's or the manufacturer's names were added by applying letters and symbols on the pedestal portion. Glassware that has been blown into a mould whose interior has a raised pattern so that the object shows the pattern with a concavity on the inside, underlying the convexity on the outside. Pattern moulds are not used to impart the final form to the object.
By stylistic analysis and material dating
Baykan, C. and Baykan, D., Eskiçağ’da Cam, İstanbul: Türk Eskiçağ Bilimleri Enstitüsü Yayınları, 2013.
Fleming, S. J., Roman Glass: Reflections on Cultural Change, Pennsylvania: University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, 1999.
Lightfoot, C. S. and Arslan, M. (eds), Ancient Glass of Asia Minor: The Yüksel Erimtan Collection, Ankara: Ünal Ofset, 1992.
Newby, M. S., Glass of Four Millennia, Oxford: Ashmolean Museum, 2000.
Özgümüş, Ü. C., Çağlar Boyu Cam Tasarımı, İstanbul: Arkeoloji ve Sanat Yayınları, 2013.
Ezgi Özdemir, Selma Ünal "Modiolus" in MWNF GALLERIES , Museum With No Frontiers, 2020. http://www.museumwnf.org/thematicgallery/thg_galleries/database_item.php?itemId=objects;DGA;tr;Mus41;12;en&id=glass
Prepared by: Ezgi Özdemir, Selma Ünal
MWNF Working Number: TUR1_012