Name of Object:

Scaled armours (cuirass), and swords


Amman, Jordan

Holding Museum:

Jordan Archaeological Museum


Hegira 7th century / AD 13th century

Type of object:

Armour, sword, arms, armours

Museum Inventory Number:

الدرعان: J.6338, J.9881؛ السيفان: J.6339, J.6342

Material(s) / Technique(s):

Cuirass: iron; swords: iron and ivory.


Scale armour (cuirass) length 55 cm, width 45cm; sword length 84 cm

Period / Dynasty:



Unknown, but probably Syria or Egypt.


Two iron and ivory swords and two protective lamellar cuirasses or scaled armour, made out of overlapping metal rings. Usually worn over a thick linen or leather shirt, the cuirass protected the soldier from direct sword, arrow or dagger hits during battle. Sometimes it was hidden under a surcoat (burda).

There were two main types of cuirasses: the first was wider and more constrictive, although more protective; while the second was a shorter, sleeveless cuirass that allowed more freedom of movement, but which offered less protection. Foot soldiers and archers were known to cut the sleeves off their cuirasses because of the weight and hindrance of movement.

Protective armours have a long history and are therefore difficult to date. In the AH 6th–7th / AD 12th–13th century, the manufacture of scaled armours reached its peak, especially during the Crusader wars. Cuirasses like this one were made of copper, steal and Iron.

The Arabs greatly valued the sword, giving it more than 100 different names. In the Middle Islamic period (AH 6th–10th / AD 12th–15th centuries) the manufacture of swords, shields and armour was active in Damascus, Cairo and Aleppo. Sometimes the name of the maker appears on the sword itself like 'Ali' who made the sword of the Mamluk Sultan Husam al-Din Lajin (r. AH 695–8 / AD 1296–9) and 'Hajji Yusuf' from Aleppo who made the sword of Sultan Qaytbay (r. AH 872–901 / AD 1468–96).

View Short Description

How date and origin were established:

By comparison with other, similar swords and cuirasses some of which were found in Syria and Egypt. For instance there is a similar cuirass found at Aleppo and now at Damascus National Museum.

How Object was obtained:

The objects were purchased from an antiquities dealer.

How provenance was established:

Syria and Egypt were the two principal centres for the manufacture of scaled armour and swords in the Mamluk period; it is possible that this cuirass and sword were purchased there.

Selected bibliography:

الهندي.صفاء، تقنية الأسلحة الأيوبية و المملوكية و تطورها: القرن 6-10 ه / 12-16م، رسالة ماجستير، الجامعة الأردنية، ص. 49، شكل 72.

National Museum in Damascus Catalogue, Damascus, 1969, fig. 77.

Stocklein, H. 'Die waffenscharze im Topkapu Sarayi Muzesi zu Istanbule', Ars Islamica, Vol. I, part 2, 1934, pp.200–19, fig. 10

Citation of this web page:

Aida Naghawy "Scaled armours (cuirass), and swords" in Discover Islamic Art , Museum With No Frontiers, 2019.;ISL;jo;Mus01;25;en&id=arms_and_armoury

Prepared by: Aida NaghawyAida Naghawy

Aida Naghawy is an archaeologist and the Director of Jordan Archaeological Museum. She studied archaeology at the University of Jordan where she gained her MA. She was affiliated to the Jordanian Department of Antiquities from 1974 as a curator of Jordan Archaeological Museum. In 1981 she became inspector of Jerash antiquities and co-ordinator of the Jerash International Rehabilitation project. She was also head of the archaeological awareness section at the Department of Antiquities. Aida is the author of numerous publications on Islamic coins. She has carried out excavation work in Jerash and is the founder of Jerash Archaeological Museum and the Islamic Museum of the Ministry of Awqaf and Islamic Affairs.

Copyedited by: Mandi Gomez

MWNF Working Number: JO 51