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Name of Monument:
Mausoleum of Saladin (Salah al-Din)Location:
Also known as: Madrasa al-'Aziziyya
The building faces the north wall of the Great Umayyad Mosque, Damascus, SyriaDate of the monument:
Hegira 589–92 / AD 1193–6Period / Dynasty:
Al-Malik al-Afdal Nur al-Din ‘Ali (r. AH 582–92 / AD 1186–96).Description:
Salah al-Din's (Saladin's) tomb is located next to the northwestern corner of the Great Umayyad Mosque. Although Saladin died in AH 589 / AD 1193, he was initially interred at the Damascus Citadel until his son al-Malik al-Afdal Nur al-Din 'Ali, ruler of Damascus, completed the construction of the mausoleum. Saladin's body was transferred to its final resting place on the holy day of 'Ashura in AH 592 (AD 1195). Soon afterwards, Salah al-Din's other son, al-Malik al-Aziz ‘Uthman (‘Uthman II), ruler of Egypt, decided to construct a madrasa attached to his father's tomb. Thus it is also known as al-Madrasa al-'Aziziyya. The events surrounding the death and burial of Saladin are clearly recorded in the historical sources, based on the eyewitness account of Imad al-Din al-Isfahani (d. AH 597 / AD 1201), who was Saladin's confidant and administrative genius.How monument was dated:
The construction of the tomb is typically Damascene: a square chamber with ablaq walls and four arches capped by a cupola. The movement from square room to circular dome is achieved by a transitional drum in two zones: octagonal and 16-sided polygonal. The interior of the tomb chamber is mounted with blue and green Ottoman tiles of the AH 11th / AD 17th century known as qashani. More subtle decoration can be seen in the stone-paste floral and geometric designs above the arches.
In the middle of this domed chamber lie two coffins. The white marble coffin was a gift from the German Emperor William II on the occasion of his visit to Damascus in 1903. Next to it is the original wooden cenotaph, a masterpiece of the linear interplay typical of Ayyubid woodworking. It is decorated with geometric and astral patterns as well as floral and vegetal motifs.
The tomb chamber occupies the southwest corner of the building. A chamber used for Qur'anic recitation is accessible from its east side and a series of five smaller rooms are found along the north side. As for the building's exterior and its connection to the Madrasa Aziziyya, little of this original architecture has survived to modern times.
The original inscriptions have been modernised, but contemporary Ayyubid histories contain accounts of Salah al-Din's burial. Stylistic comparisons of Damascene Ayyubid architecture also support the 6th- / 12th-century dating.Selected bibliography:
Allen, T., “Ayyubid Architecture”, Solipsist Press (electronic publication 7th edition), 2003.Citation:
Burns, R., Monuments of Syria: An Historical Guide, London-New York, 1999.
Moaz, A. R., “Note sur le mausolée de Saladin à Damas: son fondateur et les circonstances de sa fondation”, Bulletin d'etudes Orientales, V, 1989, pp.39–40, 184–9.
Sauvaget, J., "Le cenotaphe de Saladin", Revue des Arts Asiatique, 1930, p.168–75.
Moaz, K., "Madafin al-Muluk wa al-Salateen fi Dimashq [The Tombs of Kings and Sultans in Damascus]" Al-Howliyyat al-Athariyya al-Suriyya [The Syrian Archaeological Annals], Vol. I, Part II, 1951, pp.235–53.
Abd al-Razzaq Moaz, Zena Takieddine "Mausoleum of Saladin (Salah al-Din)" in Discover Islamic Art. Place: Museum With No Frontiers, 2013. http://www.discoverislamicart.org/database_item.php?id=monument;ISL;sy;Mon01;14;en
MWNF Working Number: SY 18